Continuous electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring was used during 213 carotid endarterectomies in 157 patients to identify cerebral ischemia. General anesthesia was used for all patients. An intraluminal shunt was not used routinely, but was inserted in 23 operations when EEG abnormalities associated with ischemia appeared. EEG changes occurred in 31 operations (14.5 percent). Four patterns of abnormal recordings were identified and are discussed. Six patients developed ischemic EEG changes in association with hypotension during endarterectomy. In two of these patients changes appeared with a blood pressure drop of only 20 mm. Hg below preoperative levels. Four patients with internal carotid artery back pressures of 75 to 100 mm. Hg developed EEG abnormalities which disappeared after shunt insertion. Our experience emphasizes the value of continuous EEG monitoring in detecting inadequate cerebral perfusion.