Objectives: To investigate changes in plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) during the development of doxorubicin-induced left ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction as measured by echocardiography (ECHO).
Design: Prospective study.
Setting: University hospital.
Subjects: Twenty-eight adult patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, who received doxorubicin to the cumulative dose of 400-500 mg m(-2).
Main outcome measures: The relationship between plasma natriuretic peptides and systolic and diastolic ECHO indices after the cumulative doxorubicin doses of 200, 400 and 500 mg m(-2).
Results: Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, by 2D ECHO) decreased from 58 +/- 1.7 to 52.5 +/- 1.3% (P=0.036) and fractional shortening (FS) from 34.6 +/- 1.4 to 27.8 +/- 0.9% (P=0.002). Peak E wave velocity decreased from 63.3 +/- 3.2 to 51.3 +/- 2.6 cm s(-1) (P=0.008) resulting in a statistically nonsignificant decrease in E/A ratio from 1.08 +/- 0.01 to 0.85 +/- 0.07. A significant decrease was observed in the percentage of left ventricular filling during the 1/3 of diastole (1/3FF) from 42.2 +/- 1.7 to 36.5 +/- 2.0% (P < 0.001). LV end systolic diameter increased from 32 +/- 1 to 38 +/- 1 mm (P=0.011), whereas left atrial (LA) diameter remained unchanged. Peak filling rate decreased from 4.4 +/- 0.2 to 4.0 +/- 0.2 stroke volume s(-1) (SV s(-1)) (ns). Plasma levels of ANP increased from 16.4 +/- 1.3 to 22.7 +/- 2.4 pmol L(-1) (P=0.002), NT-pro-ANP from 288 +/- 22 to 380 +/- 42 pmol L(-1) (P=0.019) and BNP from 3.3 +/- 0.4 to 8.5 +/- 2.0 pmol L(-1) (P=0.020). There was a significant inverse correlation between the decrease in FS and the increases in plasma NT-pro-ANP (r= -0.524, P=0.018) and plasma BNP (r=0.462, P=0.04) and between the decrease in PFR and the increases in plasma ANP (r= -0.457, P=0.043) and plasma NT-pro-ANP (r= -0.478, P=0.033). Furthermore, after doxorubicin therapy, significant inverse correlations were observed between E/A ratio and plasma ANP (r= -0.535, P=0.008), between E/A ratio and plasma NT-pro-ANP (r= -0.432, P=0.04) and between E/A ratio and plasma BNP (r= -0.557, P=0.006) as well as between 1/3FF and plasma BNP (r= -0.493, P=0.017). There was also a trend for correlation between LA diameter and plasma BNP (r=0.395, P=0.062) and peak E wave velocity and plasma BNP (r= -0.414, P=0.05), respectively. However, no significant correlations were observed between any of the systolic parameters and natriuretic peptide levels.
Conclusions: The results of this prospective study show that during the evolution of doxorubicin-induced LV dysfunction the secretion of natriuretic peptides is more closely associated with the impairment of left ventricular diastolic filling than with the deterioration of LV systolic function.