Novel and recurrent mutations in the genes encoding keratins K6a, K16 and K17 in 13 cases of pachyonychia congenita

J Invest Dermatol. 2001 Dec;117(6):1391-6. doi: 10.1046/j.0022-202x.2001.01565.x.


Thirteen patients with pachyonychia congenita types 1 and 2 were studied, two of which had a family history of pachyonychia and 11 of which were sporadic cases. Heterozygous mis-sense or small in-frame insertion/deletion mutations were detected in the genes encoding keratins K6a, K16, and K17 in all cases. Three novel mutations, F174V, E472K, and L469R were found in the K6a gene. Two novel mutations, M121T and L128Q were detected in K16. Similarly, three novel mutations, L95P, S97del, and L99P were found in K17. In addition, we identified recurrent mutations N171del (three instances) and F174S in K6a and R94H in K17. Analysis of both phenotype and genotype data led to the following conclusions: (i) K6a or K16 mutations produce the pachyonychia congenita type 1 phenotype, whereas K17 (or K6b) mutations cause pachyonychia congenita type 2; (ii) the presence of pilosebaceous cysts following puberty is the best indicator of pachyonychia congenita type 2; (iii) prepubescent patients are more difficult to classify due to the lack of cysts; and (iv) natal teeth are indicative of pachyonychia congenita type 2, although their absence does not preclude the pachyonychia congenita type 2 phenotype. This study establishes useful diagnostic criteria for pachyonychia congenita types 1 and 2, which will help limit unnecessary DNA analysis in the diagnosis and management of this genetically heterogeneous group of genodermatoses.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • DNA Primers
  • Ectodermal Dysplasia / genetics*
  • Gene Deletion*
  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • Keratins / genetics*
  • Keratoderma, Palmoplantar / genetics*
  • Mutation, Missense*
  • Nail Diseases / genetics
  • Phenotype
  • Restriction Mapping


  • DNA Primers
  • Keratins