Since Factor Xa (FXa) is well known to play a central role in thrombosis and hemostasis, inhibition of FXa is an attractive target for antithrombotic strategies. As a part of our investigation of a non-peptide, orally available FXa inhibitor, we found that a series of N-[(7-amidino-2-naphthyl)methyl]aniline derivatives possessed potent and selective inhibitory activities. Structure--activity relationship (SAR) of the substituent (R(1)) on the central aniline moiety suggested that increasing lipophilicity caused a detrimental effect on anticoagulant activity (prothrombin time assay) in plasma. Several compounds bearing a hydrophilic substituent in R(1) showed not only potent FXa inhibitory activities but also high anticoagulant activities. The best compound in this series was sulfamoylacetic acid derivative (YM-60828) which was a potent, selective and orally bioavailable FXa inhibitor and was chosen for clinical development.