Long-term effectiveness of a peer-based intervention to promote condom and contraceptive use among HIV-positive and at-risk women

Public Health Rep. 2001;116 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):103-19. doi: 10.1093/phr/116.S1.103.


Objective: The authors used data from a larger study to evaluate the long-term effects of a peer advocate intervention on condom and contraceptive use among HIV-infected women and women at high risk for HIV infection.

Methods: HIV-infected women in one study and women at high risk for HIV infection in a second study were selected from the Women and Infants Demonstration Project and assigned to a standard or an enhanced HIV prevention treatment group. The enhanced intervention included support groups and one-on-one contacts with peer advocates tailored to clients' needs. The authors interviewed women at baseline and at 6-, 12- and 18-months, and measured changes in consistency of condom and contraceptive use and in self-efficacy and perceived advantages and disadvantages of condom and contraceptive use.

Results: Of HIV-infected women, the enhanced group had improved consistency in condom use, increased perceived advantages of condom use, and increased level of self-efficacy compared with the standard group. Of women at risk, the enhanced intervention group at six months maintained consistent condom use with a main partner and perceived more benefit of condom use compared with the standard group. These differences diminished at 12 months.

Conclusions: The enhanced intervention was generally effective in the HIV+ study. In the at-risk study, however, intervention effects were minimal and short-lived. Factors related to the theory, intervention design, and sample characteristics help explain these differences.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Baltimore / epidemiology
  • Community Health Planning
  • Condoms / statistics & numerical data
  • Contraceptive Agents / therapeutic use
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / epidemiology
  • HIV Infections / prevention & control*
  • Health Behavior
  • Health Promotion / organization & administration*
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Logistic Models
  • Peer Group*
  • Philadelphia / epidemiology
  • Primary Prevention
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk-Taking
  • Safe Sex / psychology
  • Safe Sex / statistics & numerical data*
  • Self Efficacy
  • Self-Help Groups*
  • Time
  • Women's Health*


  • Contraceptive Agents