The Yersinia Ysc-Yop virulence apparatus

Int J Med Microbiol. 2002 Feb;291(6-7):455-62. doi: 10.1078/1438-4221-00153.


The Yop virulon is an integrated system allowing extracellular Yersinia adhering at the surface of a target cell to inject an array of bacterial effectors into the eukaryotic cytosol. It consists of a type III secretion apparatus, called the Ysc injectisome and an array of proteins secreted by this apparatus, called Yops. The injectisome is made of about 25 Ysc proteins. The proximal part of the injectisome resembles the basal body of the flagellum while the most distal part is made of a secretin and a small needle protruding from the bacterial surface. Three of the Yops, namely YopB, YopD and LcrV, are required for the translocation of the others across the target cell membrane. They form some kind of a pore in the target cell membrane. Four Yop effectors, YopE, YopT, YpkA and YopH disturb the cytoskeleton dynamics by targeting monomeric GTPases of the Rho family. YopP downregulates the onset of the inflammatory response by blocking the NF-kappaB and MAPK pathways. Strong arguments indicate that it is a SUMO protease. Finally, YopM has been shown to travel to the nucleus of the target cell.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins / metabolism
  • Bacterial Proteins / metabolism*
  • Cytoskeleton / metabolism
  • Down-Regulation
  • Eukaryotic Cells / metabolism
  • Eukaryotic Cells / microbiology
  • GTP Phosphohydrolases / metabolism
  • MAP Kinase Signaling System
  • Molecular Chaperones / metabolism
  • NF-kappa B / metabolism
  • Protein Transport
  • Virulence
  • Yersinia / metabolism
  • Yersinia / pathogenicity*


  • Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins
  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Molecular Chaperones
  • NF-kappa B
  • YopB protein, Yersinia
  • YscB protein, Yersinia pestis
  • GTP Phosphohydrolases