A total of 21,000 general population newborns (NECs) and 693 young siblings-offspring of patients with type 1A diabetes (SOCs) were class II genotyped and 293 NECs and 72 SOCs with the high-risk genotype, DR3/4, DQB1*0302 have been prospectively evaluated. Seventeen individuals who converted to persistent autoantibody positivity and two autoantibody-negative control groups (35 SOCs and 24 NECs) were typed for HLA-A class I alleles. The A1, A2 genotype was significantly increased among the autoantibody-positive subjects (47%) compared to autoantibody-negative SOCs (14%, P = 0.01) and NECs (13%, P = 0.02). Life-table analysis of DR3/4, DQB1*0302 siblings revealed a risk of 75% for development of islet autoantibodies by the age of 2 years for those with A1, A2. The HLA-A2 phenotype frequency was increased among an independent DR3/4, DQB1*0302 young diabetes cohort (64% versus 33% for autoantibody-negative NECs). These results suggest that a high incidence and early appearance of islet autoantibodies for siblings of patients with type 1A diabetes are associated with DR3/4, DQB1*0302 and potentially increased with HLA-A genotype A1, A2.