Adapted swallowing (AS) and its effects on dentofacial balance are frequently observed in children with orofacial myofunctional alterations. The preliminary objective of this research was to identify the frequency of cases of adapted swallowing in a population of school children, and targeting early treatment to prevent morphofunctional alteration of the face and its consequences on dentofacial harmony. One hundred school children between seven and nine years old attending the Children and Adolescents' Supporting Program (PRODECAD) of the State University of Campinas (UNICAMP) Brazil were selected at random and examined. Orofacial myofunctional assessments were carried out through standardized protocol. Results indicated the prevalence of adapted swallowing associated with resting posture alterations of dentofacial structures and mastication with dentofacial disharmony was 57%. Adapted swallowing without alteration of dentofacial form was observed in 19% of cases, and 24% of cases had a swallowing pattern within normal limits. The high prevalence of alterations suggests the need for early professional intervention.