Embryonic assembly of a central pattern generator without sensory input

Nature. 2002 Mar 14;416(6877):174-8. doi: 10.1038/416174a.


Locomotion depends on the integration of sensory information with the activity of central circuitry, which generates patterned discharges in motor nerves to appropriate muscles. Isolated central networks generate fictive locomotor rhythms (recorded in the absence of movement), indicating that the fundamental pattern of motor output depends on the intrinsic connectivity and electrical properties of these central circuits. Sensory inputs are required to modify the pattern of motor activity in response to the actual circumstances of real movement. A central issue for our understanding of how locomotor circuits are specified and assembled is the extent to which sensory inputs are required as such systems develop. Here we describe the effects of eliminating sensory function and structure on the development of the peristaltic motor pattern of Drosophila embryos and larvae. We infer that the circuitry for peristaltic crawling develops in the complete absence of sensory input; however, the integration of this circuitry into actual patterns of locomotion requires additional information from the sensory system. In the absence of sensory inputs, the polarity of movement is deranged, and backward peristaltic waves predominate at the expense of forward peristalsis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Axons / physiology
  • Body Patterning / physiology
  • Central Nervous System / embryology
  • Central Nervous System / physiology
  • Drosophila melanogaster / embryology*
  • Drosophila melanogaster / genetics
  • Drosophila melanogaster / growth & development
  • Drosophila melanogaster / physiology*
  • Embryo, Nonmammalian / embryology*
  • Embryo, Nonmammalian / innervation*
  • Embryo, Nonmammalian / physiology
  • Larva / growth & development
  • Larva / physiology
  • Motor Activity / physiology*
  • Neurons, Afferent / physiology
  • Peripheral Nervous System / embryology
  • Peripheral Nervous System / metabolism
  • Peripheral Nervous System / physiology*
  • Tetanus Toxin / genetics
  • Tetanus Toxin / metabolism
  • Video Recording


  • Tetanus Toxin