Gingival recession in smokers and non-smokers with minimal periodontal disease

J Clin Periodontol. 2002 Feb;29(2):129-36. doi: 10.1034/j.1600-051x.2002.290207.x.


Background/aims: Smoking is a major risk factor for destructive periodontal disease. There is limited information with regard to effects of smoking in subjects with minimal periodontal destruction. The aim of the present investigation was to assess the development of gingival recession in young adult smokers and non-smokers.

Methods: 61 systemically healthy young adults, 19 to 30 years of age completed the final examination. 30 volunteers smoked at least 20 cigarettes per day, whereas 31 subjects were non-smokers. Clinical periodontal conditions were assessed 4x within a time period of 6 months. Site-specific analyses considering the correlated structure of data were performed.

Results: At the outset, 50% of subjects presented with gingival recession at 1 or more sites. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of gingival recession between non-smokers and smokers. Severe recession in excess of 2 mm affected about 23% non-smokers but only 7% smokers. Some further gingival recession developed during the 6-month observation period. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, the risk for recession development appeared not to be influenced by smoking status after adjusting for periodontal probing depth, recession at baseline, tooth brushing frequency, gender, jaw, tooth type and site.

Conclusions: Present data did not support the hypothesis that smokers are at an increased risk for the development of gingival recession.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Dental Plaque Index
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Gingival Recession / classification*
  • Humans
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Mandible
  • Maxilla
  • Periodontal Diseases / classification
  • Periodontal Pocket / classification
  • Periodontitis / classification
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Factors
  • Smoking / adverse effects*
  • Statistics, Nonparametric
  • Tooth / pathology
  • Toothbrushing