Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2001 Sep;1(5):492-9. doi: 10.1007/s11910-001-0112-9.


Tinnitus is a common otologic symptom secondary to numerous etiologies, such as noise exposure, otitis, Meniere's disease, otosclerosis, trauma, medications, and presbycusis. A thorough evaluation is necessary to rule out less common causes, which may include acoustic neuromas, glomus tumors, atherosclerosis of the carotid arteries, arteriovenous fistulae (AVFs), arteriovenous fistulae malformations (AVMs), and intracranial hypertension. Treating physicians need to have a very compassionate attitude towards these patients, and statements such as "there is nothing that can be done" are very inappropriate and should be strongly condemned. Reassurance, hearing aids, masking devices, retraining methods, antidepressants, intratympanic medications, and management of underlying pathologies such as carotid artery atherosclerosis, skull base tumors, intracranial hypertension, and AVMs/AVFs provide relief for the majority of these patients.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Tinnitus* / diagnosis
  • Tinnitus* / etiology
  • Tinnitus* / therapy