The frontal lobes constitute two thirds of the human brain, yet the functions performed by them remained mysterious for a long time. Apart from their well-known involvement in motor function and language, little was previously known about the functions of the frontal lobes. Recent advances have uncovered important roles for the frontal lobes in a multitude of cognitive processes, such as executive function, attention, memory, and language. The importance of the frontal lobes in processes underlying affect, mood, personality, self-awareness, as well as social and moral reasoning, is also a renewed area for research. This article focuses on recent advances in understanding frontal lobe functions.