Background: Renal failure remains a common complication of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair. The purpose of this randomized clinical trial was to compare two methods of selective renal perfusion--cold crystalloid perfusion versus normothermic blood perfusion--and determine which technique provides the best kidney protection during thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair.
Methods: Thirty randomized patients undergoing Crawford extent II thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair with left heart bypass had renal artery perfusion with either 4 degrees C Ringer's lactate solution (14 patients) or normothermic blood from the bypass circuit (16 patients). Acute renal dysfunction was defined as an elevation in serum creatinine level exceeding 50% of baseline within 10 postoperative days.
Results: One death occurred in each group. One patient in the blood perfusion group experienced renal failure requiring hemodialysis. Ten patients (63%) in the blood perfusion group and 3 patients (21%) in the cold crystalloid perfusion group experienced acute renal dysfunction (p = 0.03). Multivariable analysis confirmed that the use of cold crystalloid perfusion was independently protective against acute renal dysfunction (p = 0.02; odds ratio, 0.133).
Conclusions: When using left heart bypass during repair of extensive thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms, selective cold crystalloid perfusion offers superior renal protection when compared with conventional normothermic blood perfusion.