The development of androgen-independent prostate cancer

Nat Rev Cancer. 2001 Oct;1(1):34-45. doi: 10.1038/35094009.


The normal prostate and early-stage prostate cancers depend on androgens for growth and survival, and androgen ablation therapy causes them to regress. Cancers that are not cured by surgery eventually become androgen independent, rendering anti-androgen therapy ineffective. But how does androgen independence arise? We predict that understanding the pathways that lead to the development of androgen-independent prostate cancer will pave the way to effective therapies for these, at present, untreatable cancers.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Androgens / analysis
  • Androgens / physiology*
  • Growth Substances / physiology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mutation
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / etiology*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / therapy
  • Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / physiology
  • Receptors, Androgen / genetics
  • Receptors, Androgen / physiology


  • Androgens
  • Growth Substances
  • Receptors, Androgen
  • Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases