The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III report outlines the management of hypercholesterolemia through guidelines. These guidelines call for more aggressive diagnosis and treatment of hypercholesterolemia, which will substantially increase the number of individuals in the United States considered to be at risk for heart disease and will expand the number who will receive dietary and drug treatment. The new features of ATP III add complexity to the guidelines, which will impact adherence as well as add challenges to the management of hypercholesterolemia. Following key recommendations and incorporating essential elements of adherence can improve implementation of the NCEP ATP III guidelines. The use of global risk scoring aids, including the Palm Pilot cholesterol risk calculators, can improve guideline adherence and provide education and motivation to patients to maintain compliance.