Some studies have suggested that intravenous iron therapy may be associated with an increased risk of infection. We analyzed the incidence of bacterial infection in 111 hemodialysis patients. Group 1 (n = 39, transferrin saturation <20%) received 10 doses of 100 mg of intravenous iron saccharate, 3 doses per week (28 treatment days); Group 2 (n = 13, transferrin saturation <20%) received 20 doses, 3 doses per week (70 treatment days); and Group 3 (n = 59, transferrin saturation 20-50%) received 10 doses, 1 dose per week (70 treatment days). The follow-up was 150 days for all groups, and all infectious episodes were recorded. Pulmonary infection was the most frequent event observed in all of the groups. In an incidence-density analysis, Group 2, which received a total of 20 doses, presented a significantly higher incidence of infection than Group 3, which received only 10 doses over the same period (0.13 versus 0.06 infections per patient per month, p = 0.04). No difference was observed between Groups 1 and 2 suggesting that the risk of infection during iron therapy is dose dependent rather than time length dependent.