A high-throughput cell-free protein synthesis method has been described. The methodology is based on a bilayer diffusion system that enables the continuous supply of substrates, together with the continuous removal of small byproducts, through a phase between the translation mixture and substrate mixture. With the use of a multititer plate the system was functional for a prolonged time, and as a consequence yielded more than 10 times that of the similar batch-mode reaction. Combining this method with a wheat germ cell-free translation system developed by us, the system could produce a large amount of protein sufficient for carrying out functional analyses. This novel bilayer-based cell-free protein synthesis system with its simplicity, minimum time and low cost may be useful practical methodology in the post-genome era.