The Mozena Classification System and treatment algorithm for ingrown hallux nails

J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2002 Mar;92(3):131-5. doi: 10.7547/87507315-92-3-131.


Infected ingrown toenails raise the question of how much nail should be removed and what amount of nail fold reduction should occur. Often, the ungual labia folds are found to be hypertrophic, forcing the nail to push into the flesh and start a foreign body reaction. A simplified approach to this problem is proposed on the basis of the measurement of 100 normal nail folds and 25 infected nail folds. The results of this study show that the treatment goal should be to achieve an ungual labia fold of less than 3 mm, concluding that there is a correlation between the depth of the ungual labia fold and the severity of the infected ingrown toenail.

MeSH terms

  • Algorithms*
  • Hallux* / anatomy & histology
  • Hallux* / pathology
  • Humans
  • Nails / anatomy & histology
  • Nails / pathology*
  • Nails, Ingrown / classification*
  • Nails, Ingrown / pathology
  • Nails, Ingrown / therapy*
  • Reference Values
  • Retrospective Studies