Cyclo-oxygenase 2: a pharmacological target for the prevention of cancer

Lancet Oncol. 2001 Sep;2(9):544-51. doi: 10.1016/S1470-2045(01)00488-0.

Abstract

Understanding the mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis provides insights that are necessary for the development of therapeutic strategies to prevent cancer. Chemoprevention--the use of drugs or natural substances to inhibit carcinogenesis - is an important and rapidly evolving aspect of cancer research. We discuss evidence that cyclooxygenase 2 (COX 2), an inducible form of the enzyme, is a potential pharmacological target to prevent cancer. Key data implicating a causal relation between increased activity of COX 2 and carcinogenesis and possible mechanisms of action of COX 2 in this context are covered. Importantly, selective COX 2 inhibitors appear to be safe enough in human beings to allow large-scale clinical testing in healthy people. Several chemoprevention trials using selective COX 2 inhibitors are underway.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Apoptosis
  • Cyclooxygenase 2
  • Humans
  • Immunosuppression
  • Inflammation
  • Isoenzymes / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • Isoenzymes / physiology
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Neoplasms / drug therapy*
  • Neoplasms / enzymology
  • Neoplasms / etiology
  • Neoplasms / pathology
  • Neoplasms / prevention & control*
  • Neovascularization, Pathologic
  • Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases / physiology
  • Prostaglandins / biosynthesis
  • Xenobiotics

Substances

  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Isoenzymes
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Prostaglandins
  • Xenobiotics
  • Cyclooxygenase 2
  • PTGS2 protein, human
  • Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases