Strategies for designing and optimizing new generation vaccines

Nat Rev Immunol. 2001 Dec;1(3):209-19. doi: 10.1038/35105075.


Although the field of immunology developed in part from the early vaccine studies of Edward Jenner, Louis Pasteur and others, vaccine development had largely become the province of virologists and other microbiologists, because the model for classic vaccines was to isolate the pathogen and prepare a killed or attenuated pathogen vaccine. Only recently has vaccinology returned to the realm of immunology, because a new understanding of immune mechanisms has allowed translation of basic discoveries into vaccine strategies.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adjuvants, Immunologic / administration & dosage
  • Animals
  • Cytokines / administration & dosage
  • Dendritic Cells / immunology
  • Drug Design
  • Epitopes / administration & dosage
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Mucosal
  • Models, Immunological
  • T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic / immunology
  • Vaccines / isolation & purification*
  • Vaccines, DNA / isolation & purification


  • Adjuvants, Immunologic
  • Cytokines
  • Epitopes
  • Vaccines
  • Vaccines, DNA