T-cell Regulation by CD28 and CTLA-4

Nat Rev Immunol. 2001 Dec;1(3):220-8. doi: 10.1038/35105024.

Abstract

Activation of T lymphocytes is thought to require at least two signals, one delivered by the T-cell receptor complex after antigen recognition, and one provided on engagement of co-stimulatory receptors, such as CD28. Recent studies are providing clues as to the specific signalling roles of co-stimulatory receptors. Furthermore, superimposition of inhibitory signals, such as those delivered by cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4), leads to a complex network of positive and negative co-stimulatory signals, the integration of which modulates immune responses.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Abatacept
  • Animals
  • Antigens, CD / metabolism
  • Antigens, Differentiation / metabolism*
  • B7-1 Antigen / metabolism
  • B7-2 Antigen
  • CD28 Antigens / metabolism*
  • CTLA-4 Antigen
  • Humans
  • Immune Tolerance
  • Immunoconjugates*
  • Lymphocyte Activation
  • Membrane Glycoproteins / metabolism
  • Mice
  • Models, Immunological
  • Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell / metabolism
  • Signal Transduction
  • T-Lymphocytes / immunology*

Substances

  • Antigens, CD
  • Antigens, Differentiation
  • B7-1 Antigen
  • B7-2 Antigen
  • CD28 Antigens
  • CD86 protein, human
  • CTLA-4 Antigen
  • CTLA4 protein, human
  • Cd86 protein, mouse
  • Ctla4 protein, mouse
  • Immunoconjugates
  • Membrane Glycoproteins
  • Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell
  • Abatacept