Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. A general approach for the preparation of water-soluble sulfonamides incorporating polyamino-polycarboxylate tails and of their metal complexes possessing long-lasting, topical intraocular pressure-lowering properties

J Med Chem. 2002 Mar 28;45(7):1466-76. doi: 10.1021/jm0108202.


Reaction of polyamino-polycarboxylic acids or their dianhydrides with aromatic/heterocyclic sulfonamides possessing a free amino/imino/hydrazino/hydroxy group afforded mono- and bis-sulfonamides containing polyamino-polycarboxylic acid moieties in their molecule. The acids/anhydrides used in synthesis included IDA, NTA, EDDA, EDTA and EDTA dianhydride, DTPA and DTPA dianhydride, EGTA and EGTA dianhydride, and EDDHA, among others. All the newly prepared derivatives showed strong affinity toward isozymes I, II, and IV of carbonic anhydrase (CA). Metal complexes of the new compounds have also been prepared. Metal ions used in such preparations included di- and trivalent main-group and transition cations, such as Zn(II), Cu(II), Al(III), etc. Some of the new sulfonamides/disulfonamides obtained in this way, as well as their metal complexes, behaved as nanomolar CA inhibitors against isozymes II and IV, being slightly less effective in inhibiting isozyme I. Some of these sulfonamides as well as their metal complexes strongly lowered intraocular pressure (IOP) when applied topically, directly into the normotensive/glaucomatous rabbit eye, as 1-2% water solutions/suspensions. The good water solubility of these sulfonamide CA inhibitors, correlated with the neutral pH of their water solutions used in the ophthalmologic applications and the long duration of action of the IOP-lowering effect, makes them interesting candidates for developing novel types of antiglaucoma drugs devoid of serious topical side effects.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors / chemistry*
  • Carbonic Anhydrases / chemistry
  • Carbonic Anhydrases / metabolism
  • Chelating Agents / chemistry
  • Chloroform / pharmacology
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Cornea / drug effects
  • Cornea / metabolism
  • DNA, Complementary / metabolism
  • Edetic Acid / analogs & derivatives*
  • Edetic Acid / chemistry
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • Escherichia coli / metabolism
  • Glaucoma / drug therapy*
  • Humans
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Imino Acids / chemistry
  • Kinetics
  • Male
  • Models, Chemical
  • Nitrilotriacetic Acid / chemistry
  • Pentetic Acid / chemistry
  • Pressure
  • Rabbits
  • Sulfonamides / chemistry
  • Temperature
  • Time Factors
  • Ultraviolet Rays
  • Water / chemistry*


  • Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors
  • Chelating Agents
  • DNA, Complementary
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Imino Acids
  • Sulfonamides
  • Water
  • EDDA
  • Pentetic Acid
  • Chloroform
  • Edetic Acid
  • Carbonic Anhydrases
  • Nitrilotriacetic Acid
  • iminodiacetic acid