Do Internet interventions for consumers cause more harm than good? A systematic review

Health Expect. 2002 Mar;5(1):28-37. doi: 10.1046/j.1369-6513.2002.00156.x.


Objective: To systematically review the effect of consumer use of online health information on decision-making, attitudes, knowledge, satisfaction and health outcomes and utilization.

Search strategy: Electronic databases searched included the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, MEDLINE, PREMEDLINE (to 14 March 2001), CINAHL, Australian Medical Index, Health and Society, National Institutes of Health Clinical Trials Database and CenterWatch.

Inclusion criteria: All post-1995 comparative studies (including controlled studies, before and after studies, and interrupted time series analyses) of Internet users vs. non-Internet users and other communications mediums, and Internet characteristics such as e-mail vs. other communication mediums, were included. Outcomes included consumer decision-making, attitudes, knowledge, satisfaction and measurable changes in health status or health utilization.

Data extraction and synthesis: One reviewer screened all papers then two reviewers independently assessed studies against the selection criteria and any discrepancies were resolved by discussion with a third reviewer. No attempt was made to combine the data for further statistical analysis.

Main results: We identified 10 comparative studies. Studies evaluated the effectiveness of using the Internet to deliver a smoking cessation programme, cardiac and nutrition educational programmes, behavioural interventions for headache and weight loss, and pharmacy and augmentative services. All studies showed some positive effects on health outcomes, although the methodological quality of many studies was poor.

Conclusions: Despite widespread consumer Internet use to obtain health-care information, there is almost a complete lack of evidence of any effects this may have on health outcomes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Consumer Behavior*
  • Decision Making*
  • Health Behavior
  • Health Education / methods*
  • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
  • Health Services Needs and Demand
  • Humans
  • Information Services / statistics & numerical data*
  • Internet / statistics & numerical data*
  • Patient Participation
  • Treatment Outcome