The undesirable side effects and variable efficacy of some oral live rotavirus vaccines in infants have necessitated alternative vaccine approaches. We evaluated a recombinant RFVP2/WaVP6 rotavirus-like-particle (2/6VLP) oral vaccine, using an immunostimulating complex (ISCOM) matrix as adjuvant, in a gnotobiotic (Gn) pig model of human rotavirus (HRV) disease. The 2/6VLPs adhered to the ISCOM-matrix (2/6VLP-ISCOM ) and were antigenic, but they failed to induce protection. However, when combined with attenuated (Att) HRV for oral priming, the 2/6VLP-ISCOM vaccine was effective as a booster and induced partial protection against virulent Wa HRV. The 250 microg 2/6VLP dose was more effective than 100 microg. The highest mean numbers of IgA antibody secreting cells evaluated by ELISPOT in intestinal lymphoid tissues were in pigs receiving AttHRV+2/6VLP-ISCOM or three doses of AttHRV and were associated with the highest protection rates.