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, 76 (8), 3765-73

Analysis of Hantavirus Genetic Diversity in Argentina: S Segment-Derived Phylogeny

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Analysis of Hantavirus Genetic Diversity in Argentina: S Segment-Derived Phylogeny

Marlene C Bohlman et al. J Virol.

Abstract

Nucleotide sequences were determined for the complete S genome segments of the six distinct hantavirus genotypes from Argentina and for two cell culture-isolated Andes virus strains from Chile. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that, although divergent from each other, all Argentinian hantavirus genotypes group together and form a novel phylogenetic clade with the Andes virus. The previously characterized South American hantaviruses Laguna Negra virus and Rio Mamore virus make up another clade that originates from the same ancestral node as the Argentinian/Chilean viruses. Within the clade of Argentinian/Chilean viruses, three subclades can be defined, although the branching order is somewhat obscure. These are made of (i) "Lechiguanas-like" virus genotypes, (ii) Maciel virus and Pergamino virus genotypes, and (iii) strains of the Andes virus. Two hantavirus genotypes from Brazil, Araraquara and Castello dos Sonhos, were found to group with Maciel virus and Andes virus, respectively. The nucleocapsid protein amino acid sequence variability among the members of the Argentinian/Chilean clade does not exceed 5.8%. It is especially low (3.5%) among oryzomyine species-associated virus genotypes, suggesting recent divergence from the common ancestor. Interestingly, the Maciel and Pergamino viruses fit well with the rest of the clade although their hosts are akodontine rodents. Taken together, these data suggest that under conditions in which potential hosts display a high level of genetic diversity and are sympatric, host switching may play a prominent role in establishing hantavirus genetic diversity. However, cospeciation still remains the dominant factor in the evolution of hantaviruses.

Figures

FIG.1.
FIG.1.
Phylogenetic relationships among the Argentinian/Chilean virus genotypes examined in the present study. Phylogenetic trees were generated on the basis of nucleotide sequence differences in the 1,129-nt fragment of the N gene ORF (A and B) or amino acid sequence differences in the entire N protein (C). Lengths of the horizontal branches are proportional to the nucleotide (A and B) and amino acid (C) step differences. Vertical branches are for visual clarity only. Bootstrap values of greater than 50%, obtained from 1,000 replicates of the analysis, are shown for the New World hantaviruses and for all other major hantavirus clades at the appropriate branch points. The Argentinian/Chilean virus genotypes under study are in italics. Previously published hantavirus S segment sequences used in the analysis include the following: Hantaan (HTN) virus strains 76118 (GenBank accession number M14626), CUMC-B11 (U37768), Q32 (AB027097), Chen4 (AB027101), Hu (AB027111), Z10 (AF184987), and NC167 (AB027523); Seoul (SEO) virus strains SR-11 (M34881), Z37 (AF187082), and Gou3 (AF184988); Dobrava (DOB) virus strain 3970/87 (L41916); Saaremaa (SAA) virus strains Saa/160V (AJ009773) and Saa/90Aa/97 (AJ009775); Puumala (PUU) virus strains Puu/Vindeln/L20Cg/83 (Z48586), Vranica (U14137), CG1820 (M32750), K27 (L08804), Puu/Kazan (Z84204), Udmurtia/458Cg/88 (Z30707), Udmurtia/894Cg/91 (Z21497), Puu/Virrat/25Cg/95 (Z69985), Evo/12Cg/93 (Z30702), Sotkamo (X61035), Puu/Solleftea/Cg6/95 (AJ223377), CG 13891 (U22423), and Tobetsu-60Cr-93 (AB010731); Khabarovsk (KBR) virus strain MF-43 (U35255); Topografov (TOP) virus strain Ls136V (AJ011646); Tula (TUL) virus strains Tula/76Ma/87 (Z30941), Tula/53Ma/87 (Z30942), Cacak (AF017659), Tula/Kosice667/Ma/95 (Y13980), Tula/Moravia/5293Ma/94 (Z48574), Tula/Koziky/5276Ma/94 (AJ223601), Malacky/Ma370/94 (Z68191), and Lodz-2 (AF063897); PH virus strain PH-1 (M34011); Isla Vista (ISLA) virus strain MC-SB-1 (U31534); ELMC virus strain RM-97 (U11427); Rio Segundo (RIOS) virus strain RMx-Costa-1 (U18100); Cano Delgadito (CD) virus strain VHV-574 (AF000140); SN virus strains Convict Creek 74 (L33816), Convict Creek 107 (L33683), and NM H10 (L25784); Monongahela (MGL) virus strain Monongahela-1 (U32591); New York (NY) virus strain RI-1 (U09488); Bayou (BAY) virus strain Bayou-1 (L36929); Black Creek Canal (BCC) virus strain BCC-1 (L39949); Muleshoe (MUL) virus strain SH-Tx-339 (U54575); Laguna Negra (LN) virus strain 510B (AF005727); RM (RIOM) virus strain OM-556 (U52136); and AND virus strain AH-1 (AF004660). (A) MP analysis of the nucleotide sequence, using the heuristic search option and a 3:1 weighting of transversions over transitions, generated a single most parsimonious tree. (B) MP analysis of the nucleotide sequence without third-position bases of the N gene ORF, using the heuristic search option and a 3:1 weighting of transversions over transitions, generated four equally parsimonious trees. One representative tree is shown here; three other trees differ only in the placement of certain genotypes (although without meaningful bootstrap support) within the clade of Argentinian/Chilean virus genotypes (data not shown). (C) Unweighted MP analysis of the complete amino acid sequence of the N protein generated 48 equally parsimonious trees. One representative tree is shown here. Other trees differ only in the placement of certain minor branches that have no significant bootstrap support.
FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.
Phylogenetic relationships of the two novel virus genotypes from Brazil, ARA (GenBank accession number AF307325) and CAS (AF307324), to the Argentinian/Chilean viruses examined in the present study. A phylogenetic tree was generated on the basis of nucleotide sequence differences in the 643-nt region of the N gene ORF, which is available for these Brazilian viruses. ML analysis was conducted by using the heuristic search option and the default ML settings of PAUP* version 4b8. The lengths of horizontal branches represent numbers of substitutions per site between corresponding taxa (see scale bar). Vertical branches are for visual clarity only. Bootstrap values of greater than 50%, obtained from 1,000 replicates of the ML analysis, are shown at the appropriate branch points. Argentinian/Chilean virus genotypes are in italics, and two novel Brazilian genotypes are in boldface.

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