The understanding of the processes underlying organellar function and inheritance requires the identification and characterization of the molecular components involved. We pursued a genomic approach to define the complements of genes required for respiratory growth and inheritance of mitochondria with normal morphology in yeast. With the systematic screening of a deletion mutant library covering the nonessential genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae the numbers of genes known to be required for respiratory function and establishment of wild-type-like mitochondrial structure have been more than doubled. In addition to the identification of novel components, the systematic screen revealed unprecedented mitochondrial phenotypes that have never been observed by conventional screens. These data provide a comprehensive picture of the cellular processes and molecular components required for mitochondrial function and structure in a simple eukaryotic cell.