Purpose: Risk factors for requiring multiple surgeries in infantile esotropia remain unclear. We identified clinical and demographic factors associated with horizontal reoperation in this disease.
Methods: A retrospective chart review of patients who underwent surgery from 1994-1997 was performed. Subjects were divided into 2 groups: those requiring only one operation and those requiring 2 or more operations to achieve orthotropia +/-10 PD.
Results: In 149 patients, the overall horizontal reoperation rate was 34%. There were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups with respect to mean age at first surgery, mean preoperative deviation, gender, prematurity, Medicaid coverage, parental age, family history of strabismus, or refractive error. The presence of nystagmus, oblique muscle dysfunction, dissociated vertical deviation (DVD), or a variable angle of esotropia was not associated with increased horizontal reoperation rate. There was a greater frequency of horizontal reoperation in patients with amblyopia, although not significant. Premature infants and infants with neurologic dysfunction had a lower incidence of horizontal reoperation, but also not significant. Deviations of less than 30 PD were associated with fewer horizontal reoperations (16% vs 31%, P =.047). Significantly more patients underwent horizontal reoperation when initial surgery was performed at less than or equal to 15 months of age (67% vs. 47%, P =.022).
Conclusions: Several factors thought to predispose to poor sensorimotor outcome (dissociated vertical deviation, oblique muscle dysfunction, and nystagmus) were not associated with an increased incidence of horizontal reoperation. Horizontal reoperation was less frequent in patients with angles less than 30 PD. Although some studies suggest that early surgical intervention in patients with infantile esotropia affords better sensory outcome, it may be associated with a higher horizontal reoperation rate.