The antitumoral and immunostimulating properties of rViscumin (recombinant mistletoe lectin) were investigated in two mouse tumor models. After intravenous inoculation with RAW-117-P or L-1 sarcoma cells in Balb/c mice, rViscumin was given s.c. at non-toxic doses ranging from 0.3 to 150 ng rViscumin/kg. One set of experiments was performed to investigate the survival of rViscumin-treated animals. Another set was carried out to analyze the effect of rViscumin treatment on the number of tumor colonies in infiltrated lungs (RAW-117P) or liver (L-1) and the activation of immune cell subsets, respectively. An overall prolonged survival time after treatment with rViscumin and a reduction in the number of tumor colonies after administration of certain rViscumin doses was observed. Immunophenotyping of the peripheral leukocytes of treated mice revealed increased numbers of T-lymphocytes, pan-NK cells and activated monocytes. The results indicate that rViscumin has antineoplastic properties and might therefore be a promising candidate in cancer therapy.