Necrotic volume increase and the early physiology of necrosis

Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2001 Oct;130(3):401-9. doi: 10.1016/s1095-6433(01)00438-x.


Whether a lethally injured mammalian cell undergoes necrosis or apoptosis may be determined by the early activation of specific ion channels at the cell surface. Apoptosis requires K+ and Cl- efflux, which leads to cell shrinking, an active phenomenon termed apoptotic volume decrease (AVD). In contrast, necrosis has been shown to require Na+ influx through membrane carriers and more recently through stress-activated non-selective cation channels (NSCCs). These ubiquitous channels are kept dormant in viable cells but become activated upon exposure to free-radicals. The ensuing Na+ influx leads to cell swelling, an active response that may be termed necrotic volume increase (NVI). This review focuses on how AVD and NVI become conflicting forces at the beginning of cell injury, on the events that determine irreversibility and in particular, on the ion fluxes that decide whether a cell is to die by necrosis or by apoptosis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Apoptosis*
  • Chloride Channels / metabolism
  • Ion Transport
  • Necrosis
  • Potassium Channels / metabolism


  • Chloride Channels
  • Potassium Channels