In this work, we studied guest-host interactions between various dye molecules and the fifth-generation poly(propylene imine) (PPI-5) dendrimers in aqueous solutions using a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor. The effect of the properties of guest and host molecules (e.g., charge and shape) and media (e.g., pH and ion strength) on affinity between guest and host molecules was investigated. Based on an immobilized homogeneous monolayer of PPI-5 dendrimer tethered to carboxyl-terminal self-assembled monolayers, the adsorption behavior of a group of dye molecules in PPI-5 was obtained. Results show that the strong affinity of PPI-5 to Rose Bengal and erythrosine B is attributed to the good match in charge and shape between the cavities of the dendrimer and the dye molecules. Maximum adsorption around a pH value of 7 was observed. The kinetic behaviors of different dye molecules in dendrimers were also studied. A fundamental understanding of guest-host interactions in dendrimers will guide the design of new-generation sensors and drug delivery carriers.