The last decade has seen considerable improvement in the understanding and treatment of neonatal surgical disorders. Translation of basic molecular biology research to clinical practice has directly improved the understanding and treatment of a number of congenital, developmental disorders, such as Hirschsprung's disease and congenital hyperinsulinism. Miniaturized instruments and improved optics have permitted increased use of videoscopic and minimally invasive techniques to even the smallest infants. Continued improvements in prenatal imaging will permit enhanced understanding of the prenatal natural history of congenital structural disorders and the development of more specific therapies. Finally, rigorous clinical research tools have begun to be applied to rare pediatric surgical disorders with the use of organized multicenter trials. It is an exciting time for all involved in the care of neonates.