The M. tuberculosis genome project is a landmark achievement in the history of TB research. The DNA sequence has provided valuable insights, along with a few surprises, into the complete genetic complement of M. tuberculosis. This information has been used to gain a better understanding of isoniazid-induced alteration in gene expression. It also has been used to construct a genealogy tree of different BCG strains, besides identifying genes that may be responsible for the human-specificity of M. tuberculosis. The impact of this project is far-reaching and in the next few years should yield innovative vaccines and therapeutic agents, besides aiding in the rapid and accurate diagnosis of TB.