Keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by erythrokeratoderma, deafness, and keratitis. Scarring alopecia and squamous cell carcinoma can also occur. Most cases described so far were sporadic. Here we present evidence that keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness syndrome is caused by a mutation in the connexin 26 gene. This finding expands the spectrum of disorders caused by defects in connexin 26 and implies the gene in normal corneal function, hair growth, and carcinogenesis.