Relation between racial discrimination, social class, and health among ethnic minority groups

Am J Public Health. 2002 Apr;92(4):624-31. doi: 10.2105/ajph.92.4.624.


Objectives: This study explored associations between racism, social class, and health among ethnic minority people in England and Wales.

Methods: We conducted a series of regression analyses on cross-sectional data from the Fourth National Survey of Ethnic Minorities to explore the relation between different indicators of racism and health and household occupational class.

Results: Marked independent associations existed between reported experience of racism and perceptions of Britain as a "racist society," household social class, age, sex, and various mental and physical health indicators. These associations showed reasonable consistency across the different ethnic groups.

Conclusions: The different ways in which racism may manifest itself (as interpersonal violence, institutional discrimination, or socioeconomic disadvantage) all have independent detrimental effects on health, regardless of the health indicator used.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Asia, Western / ethnology
  • Caribbean Region / ethnology
  • China / ethnology
  • Employment
  • England / epidemiology
  • Ethnicity / psychology
  • Ethnicity / statistics & numerical data*
  • Family Characteristics / ethnology
  • Female
  • Health Status Indicators*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Minority Groups / psychology
  • Minority Groups / statistics & numerical data*
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Prejudice*
  • Self Disclosure
  • Social Behavior
  • Social Class*
  • Social Perception
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Violence / statistics & numerical data
  • Wales / epidemiology