Objectives: This study explored associations between racism, social class, and health among ethnic minority people in England and Wales.
Methods: We conducted a series of regression analyses on cross-sectional data from the Fourth National Survey of Ethnic Minorities to explore the relation between different indicators of racism and health and household occupational class.
Results: Marked independent associations existed between reported experience of racism and perceptions of Britain as a "racist society," household social class, age, sex, and various mental and physical health indicators. These associations showed reasonable consistency across the different ethnic groups.
Conclusions: The different ways in which racism may manifest itself (as interpersonal violence, institutional discrimination, or socioeconomic disadvantage) all have independent detrimental effects on health, regardless of the health indicator used.