The effects of continuous versus partial reinforcement schedules on associative learning, memory and extinction in Lymnaea stagnalis

J Exp Biol. 2002 Apr;205(Pt 8):1171-8. doi: 10.1242/jeb.205.8.1171.


A continuous schedule of reinforcement (CR) in an operant conditioning procedure results in the acquisition of associative learning and the formation of long-term memory. A 50 % partial reinforcement (PR) schedule does not result in learning. The sequence of PR-CR training has different and significant effects on memory retention and resistance to extinction. A CR/PR schedule results in a longer-lasting memory than a PR/CR schedule. Moreover, the memory produced by the CR/PR schedule is resistant to extinction training. In contrast, extinction occurs following the PR/CR schedule.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Association Learning / physiology*
  • Extinction, Psychological / physiology*
  • Lymnaea / physiology*
  • Memory / physiology*
  • Reinforcement Schedule*
  • Time Factors