Regulation of CC chemokine receptor 5 and CD4 expression and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication in human macrophages and microglia by T helper type 2 cytokines

J Infect Dis. 2002 Apr 1;185(7):885-97. doi: 10.1086/339522. Epub 2002 Mar 11.


Macrophages, microglia, and other mononuclear phagocytes serve as cellular reservoirs for viral persistence in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. To understand host mechanisms that affect human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) pathogenesis by modulating expression of coreceptors, cytokine regulation of CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) and CD4 expression on monocytes, monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs), and microglia was investigated. Interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10 enhanced the entry and replication of HIV-1 in microglia through up-regulation of CD4 and CCR5 expression, respectively. IL-4 stimulated HIV-1 replication in MDMs but down-regulated CD4 and CCR5 expression and inhibited virus entry, whereas IL-10 had the opposite effects. Thus, mechanisms independent of CCR5 and CD4 expression levels are involved in pathways that regulate HIV-1 replication in MDMs. CCR5 up-regulation by IL-10 was associated with increased migration of microglia in response to macrophage inflammatory protein-1beta. These findings suggest that increased production of T helper type 2 cytokines in the later stages of disease can enhance virus entry and replication in mononuclear phagocytes and facilitate chemotactic migration.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • CD4 Antigens / metabolism*
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • HIV Infections / immunology
  • HIV Infections / virology
  • HIV-1 / drug effects
  • HIV-1 / pathogenicity*
  • HIV-1 / physiology
  • Humans
  • Interleukin-10 / pharmacology*
  • Interleukin-10 / physiology
  • Interleukin-4 / pharmacology*
  • Interleukin-4 / physiology
  • Macrophages / virology
  • Microglia / virology
  • Monocytes / virology
  • Receptors, CCR5 / metabolism*
  • Th2 Cells / metabolism
  • Virus Replication / drug effects


  • CD4 Antigens
  • Receptors, CCR5
  • Interleukin-10
  • Interleukin-4