Sonography is a simple, inexpensive, and readily available imaging modality that has become an essential component of the management of renal transplantation. It is indicated in almost all patients with acute renal failure and also is useful in the evaluation of pain, infection, and hematuria and the performance of percutaneous biopsy. Although many aspects of sonography are similar in native and transplanted kidneys, there are important differences and problems unique to the renal allograft, which form the basis for this review. The anatomy of renal transplantation and changes that accompany parenchymal disorders are discussed, but particular attention focuses on problems related to the urinary tract, fluid collections, and vascular disorders. By becoming more familiar with transplant sonography, nephrologists will be better able to incorporate this indispensable tool into the care of their patients.
Copyright 2002 by the National Kidney Foundation, Inc.