The need for methods to identify disease biomarkers is underscored by the survival-rate of patients diagnosed at early stages of cancer progression. Surface enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS) is a novel approach to biomarker discovery that combines two powerful techniques: chromatography and mass spectrometry. One of the key features of SELDI-TOF MS is its ability to provide a rapid protein expression profile from a variety of biological and clinical samples. It has been used for biomarker identification as well as the study of protein-protein, and protein-DNA interaction. The versatility of SELDI-TOF MS has allowed its use in projects ranging from the identification of potential diagnostic markers for prostate, bladder, breast, and ovarian cancers and Alzheimer's disease, to the study of biomolecular interactions and the characterization of posttranslational modifications. In this minireview we discuss the application of SELDI-TOF MS to protein biomarker discovery and profiling.