Objective: Our purpose was to identify angiographic and procedural predictors for acute and late side branch occlusion after coronary stent implantation.
Methods: We evaluated 185 patients with 185 lesions with 255 side branches with a mean reference diameter of 1.45 +/- 0.38 mm; the lesions were covered by 240 stents. Angiographic follow-up was completed in 99 patients with 133 side branches 206 +/- 120 days after stent implantation and clinical follow-up was available in 136 patients. Side branch occlusion (SBO) was defined as a Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) flow < or =1.
Results: Acute SBO affected 54 side branches in 49 patients and was not associated with death or Q-wave infarction. By logistic regression, independent predictors for acute SBO were (1) the reference side branch diameter (RLD) at baseline (OR [odds ratio] 0.217, 95% CI 0.07-0.67, P =.008); (2) an ostial side branch stenosis before stenting (OR 2.96, 95% CI 1.26-6.95, P =.013); (3) the involvement of the side branch origin within the lesion of the parent vessel (OR 2.77, 95% CI 1.17-6.57, P =.021); and (4) the balloon-to-artery ratio (OR 4.66, 95% CI 1.18-18.42, P =.028). Among the initially occluded side branches, 81.8% were spontaneously reperfused at follow-up. Late SBO involved 12% of the side branches without impaired antegrade flow after stenting and was predicted by the initial RLD of the side branch (OR 0.07, 95% CI 0.01-0.8, P =.032). Chronic SBO occurred in 13.5% of cases and was also predicted by the baseline RLD (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.02-0.8, P =.028).
Conclusions: Acute SBO after stenting occurred in 21.2% of cases and had a benign course. Most acutely occluded side branches underwent late spontaneous reperfusion. A baseline side branch diameter >1.4 mm predicted a preserved antegrade flow immediately after stent implantation, as well as during follow-up.