Disodium chlodronate prevents bone resorption in experimental periodontitis in rats

J Periodontol. 2002 Mar;73(3):251-6. doi: 10.1902/jop.2002.73.3.251.

Abstract

Background: Periodontitis is a chronic disease characterized by alveolar bone loss and inflammatory changes. We studied the effect of disodium chlodronate (CD), a bisphosphonate used in metastatic and metabolic bone disease as a bone resorbing drug, in an experimental periodontitis model (EPD) focusing on anti-resorptive and anti-inflammatory parameters.

Methods: A nylon thread ligature was placed around the left maxillary molars of 72 male Wistar rats who were sacrificed after 7 or 11 days. Groups were treated daily with CD (1, 5, or 25 mg/kg/sc) starting at day 0 until day 7 (prophylactic CD) or from day 5 until day 11 (curative CD) after periodontitis induction. Non-treated group (NT) consisted of rats subjected to periodontitis that received no pharmacological treatment. Alveolar bone loss (ABL) was measured as the distance between the cuspid tips and the alveolar bone. The right jaw was used as control. The hemiarcades were processed for histopathologic analysis.

Results: In NT group there was significant ABL, severe mononuclear cells influx, and increase in osteoclast numbers. Prophylactic CD treatment decreased the ABL 25.8%, 61.6%, and 75.5% as compared to NT for the 1, 5, and 25 mg/kg CD doses, respectively. Curative CD treatment decreased the ABL 20%, 62%, and 69% as compared to NT for the 1, 5 and 25 mg/kg CD doses, respectively. Both prophylactic and curative CD decreased histological changes, as compared to NT rats (P <0.01).

Conclusions: CD has both bone sparing and anti-inflammatory activity in EPD in rats when administered as a pretreatment or in an ongoing process. The possibility of using CD as an alternative treatment in human periodontitis should be considered.

MeSH terms

  • Alveolar Bone Loss / prevention & control*
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Animals
  • Clodronic Acid / therapeutic use*
  • Male
  • Periodontitis / drug therapy*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Statistics, Nonparametric

Substances

  • Clodronic Acid