Hydrolysis of phospholipids by plant phospholipase Dbeta (PLDbeta) requires phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2]. Here we show that PLDbeta is stimulated by different polyphosphoinositides, among which PI(4,5)P2 is most effective. On the basis of amino acid sequence analysis, PI(4,5)P2 binding assay, and protein engineering studies, we have identified in the catalytic region of PLDbeta a new PI(4,5)P2 binding region (PBR1), which is conserved in eukaryotic PLDs. PBR1 is a second domain besides the previously characterized N-terminal C2 domain of PLDbeta which also binds PI(4,5)P2. Submillimolar levels of calcium ions, while inhibiting PI(4,5)P2 binding by the C2 domain, enhanced the affinity of PBR1 for that phosphoinositide. Substrate binding by PLDbeta was promoted by PI(4,5)P2-bound PBR1. Isolated, recombinant PBR1 bound PI(4,5)P2 specifically and in a saturable manner. Deletion of PBR1 from PLDbeta or mutation of the conserved basic amino acid residues in PBR1 (K437G/K440G) abolished the enzymatic activity. Circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed a conformational change caused by PI(4,5)P2 binding to the catalytic region of PLD. The conformational change apparently helps in the recruitment of the substrate to the active site of the enzyme. The results taken together allow us to describe an anchorage-scooting model for the synergistic activation of PLDbeta by PI(4,5)P2 and Ca2+.