A European study on the relationship between antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance

Emerg Infect Dis. 2002 Mar;8(3):278-82. doi: 10.3201/eid0803.010192.


In Europe, antimicrobial resistance has been monitored since 1998 by the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (EARSS). We examined the relationship between penicillin nonsusceptibility of invasive isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae and antibiotic sales. Information was collected on 1998-99 resistance data for invasive isolates of S. pneumoniae to penicillin, based on surveillance data from EARSS and on outpatient sales during 1997 for beta-lactam antibiotics and macrolides. Our results show that in Europe antimicrobial resistance of S. pneumoniae to penicillin is correlated with use of beta-lactam antibiotics and macrolides.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Drug Utilization / statistics & numerical data*
  • Europe
  • Humans
  • Lactams
  • Linear Models
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  • Penicillin Resistance*
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae / drug effects*


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Lactams