The coming of age of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) analogs as immunomodulatory agents

Trends Mol Med. 2002 Apr;8(4):174-9. doi: 10.1016/s1471-4914(02)02294-3.


The active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3)[1,25(OH)(2)D(3)], is a secosteroid hormone that regulates calcium and bone metabolism, controls cell proliferation and differentiation, and exerts immunoregulatory activities. This range of functions has been exploited clinically to treat a variety of conditions, from secondary hyperparathyroidism to osteoporosis, to autoimmune diseases such as psoriasis. Recent advances in understanding 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) functions and novel insights into the mechanisms of its immunomodulatory properties suggest a wider applicability of this hormone in the treatment of autoimmune diseases and allograft rejection.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adjuvants, Immunologic* / chemistry
  • Adjuvants, Immunologic* / metabolism
  • Adjuvants, Immunologic* / pharmacology
  • Adjuvants, Immunologic* / therapeutic use
  • Antigen-Presenting Cells / drug effects
  • Antigen-Presenting Cells / metabolism
  • Autoimmune Diseases / drug therapy
  • Calcitriol / analogs & derivatives*
  • Calcitriol / metabolism*
  • Calcitriol / pharmacology
  • Calcitriol / therapeutic use
  • Graft Rejection / drug therapy
  • Humans
  • Models, Biological
  • Molecular Structure
  • Receptors, Calcitriol / metabolism
  • T-Lymphocytes / drug effects


  • Adjuvants, Immunologic
  • Receptors, Calcitriol
  • Calcitriol