We have investigated the potential utility of monoclonal antibodies against mini-chromosome maintenance-2 protein (Mcm2) in predicting meningioma recurrence. MCM proteins are members of the DNA-binding prereplicative complex and are essential for eukaryotic DNA replication. They are present throughout the cell cycle, but are down-regulated in quiescence and cell differentiation, making them specific markers of proliferating cells. We analysed 10 benign meningiomas that subsequently recurred within a 5-year period, together with 20 matched non-recurrent benign meningiomas. There was no significant correlation between histological subtype, mitotic count or Ki-67 labelling index and tumour recurrence. We observed that whilst the average Mcm2 labelling index (LI) of the tumour section as a whole (LI(Ave)) is not significantly different between recurrent and nonrecurrent meningiomas, the Mcm2 labelling index in the area of highest proliferative activity within the tumour section (LI(Max)) is significantly higher in recurrent meningiomas (p < 0.0001). Seven out of the 10 recurrent meningiomas displayed a Mcm2 LI((Max) greater than 30%, compared to 0 out of 20 for non-recurrent tumours. In conclusion, these results suggest that analysis of Mcm2 expression may facilitate identification of patients with a high risk of meningioma recurrence, for whom adjuvant radiotherapy may be of benefit.