Introduction of audio gating to further reduce organ motion in breathing synchronized radiotherapy

Med Phys. 2002 Mar;29(3):345-50. doi: 10.1118/1.1448826.


With breathing synchronized radiotherapy (BSRT), a voltage signal derived from an organ displacement detector is usually displayed on the vertical axis whereas the elapsed time is shown on the horizontal axis. The voltage gate window is set on the breathing voltage signal. Whenever the breathing signal falls between the two gate levels, a gate pulse is produced to enable the treatment machine. In this paper a new gating mechanism, audio (or time-sequence) gating, is introduced and is integrated into the existing voltage gating system. The audio gating takes advantage of the repetitive nature of the breathing signal when repetitive audio instruction is given to the patient. The audio gating is aimed at removing the regions of sharp rises and falls in the breathing signal that cannot be removed by the voltage gating. When the breathing signal falls between voltage gate levels as well as between audio-gate levels, the voltage- and audio-gated radiotherapy (ART) system will generate an AND gate pulse. When this gate pulse is received by a linear accelerator, the linear accelerator becomes "enabled" for beam delivery and will deliver the beam when all other interlocks are removed. This paper describes a new gating mechanism and a method of recording beam-on signal, both of which are, configured into a laptop computer. The paper also presents evidence of some clinical advantages achieved with the ART system.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Biophysical Phenomena
  • Biophysics
  • Fluoroscopy / methods*
  • Humans
  • Radiotherapy / methods*
  • Radiotherapy, Computer-Assisted / instrumentation
  • Radiotherapy, Computer-Assisted / methods*
  • Respiration*
  • Software
  • Time Factors
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • Video Recording