Gamma-Trace was purified in large amounts from urine and used for the production of a specific rabbit antiserum. An enzyme immunoassay for quantitation of gamma-trace was developed using the pure protein as a primary standard. Its sensitivity was approximately 30 microgram/l. An enzyme amplified single radial immunodiffusion was developed as well. Its sensitivity was approximately 0.3 mg/l. These assays allowed quantitation of gamma-trace in normal human biological fluids. The following results were obtained (mean +/- SD): cerebrospinal fluid: 5.8 +/- 2.2 mg/l, plasma: 1.1 +/- 0.42 mg/l, saliva: 1.8 +/- 0.88 mg/l and urine: 0.095 +/- 0.057 mg/l. Plasma samples from patients with advanced renal failure revealed gamma-trace values up to 13 times the normal mean plasma value. The results indicate a production of gamma-trace in the central nervous system and that the protein is primarily catabolized by the kidney.