Two novel species of Bartonella isolated from European ruminants are described. Bartonella capreoli sp. nov. was isolated from the blood of roe-deer (Capreolus capreolus) captured in Chizé, France. The type strain is IBS 193T (= CIP 106691T = CCUG 43827T). It is distinct from another European ruminant isolate that originated from a cow from a French herd of 430 dairy cattle. The latter isolate belongs to a novel species named Bartonella bovis Bermond et al. sp. nov. The type strain is strain 91-4T (= CIP 106692T = CCUG 43828T). The two bacteria appeared as small, fastidious, aerobic, oxidase-negative, gram-negative rods. Their biochemical properties were similar to those of members of the genus Bartonella. The sequences of the 16S rRNA and citrate synthase genes obtained from the two type strains were highly related to sequences of the different Bartonella species. Hybridization values when testing type strains of recognized Bartonella species, obtained with the nuclease/trichloroacetic acid method, support the creation of two novel species.