ISB recommendation on definitions of joint coordinate system of various joints for the reporting of human joint motion--part I: ankle, hip, and spine. International Society of Biomechanics

J Biomech. 2002 Apr;35(4):543-8. doi: 10.1016/s0021-9290(01)00222-6.


The Standardization and Terminology Committee (STC) of the International Society of Biomechanics (ISB) proposes a general reporting standard for joint kinematics based on the Joint Coordinate System (JCS), first proposed by Grood and Suntay for the knee joint in 1983 (J. Biomech. Eng. 105 (1983) 136). There is currently a lack of standard for reporting joint motion in the field of biomechanics for human movement, and the JCS as proposed by Grood and Suntay has the advantage of reporting joint motions in clinically relevant terms. In this communication, the STC proposes definitions of JCS for the ankle, hip, and spine. Definitions for other joints (such as shoulder, elbow, hand and wrist, temporomandibular joint (TMJ), and whole body) will be reported in later parts of the series. The STC is publishing these recommendations so as to encourage their use, to stimulate feedback and discussion, and to facilitate further revisions. For each joint, a standard for the local axis system in each articulating bone is generated. These axes then standardize the JCS. Adopting these standards will lead to better communication among researchers and clinicians.

Publication types

  • Guideline
  • Letter

MeSH terms

  • Biomechanical Phenomena
  • Humans
  • International Cooperation
  • Joints / physiology*
  • Movement / physiology*
  • Reference Standards