A case-control study of tobacco use and other non-occupational risk factors for t(14;18) subtypes of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (United States)

Cancer Causes Control. 2002 Mar;13(2):159-68. doi: 10.1023/a:1014397920185.


Objective: Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) encompasses diverse subtypes, and analyzing NHL as a single outcome may mask associations. In a new approach we evaluated associations with subtypes defined by the t(14;18) translocation, reasoning that cases within these subtypes would have more common risk factors than all NHL combined.

Methods: Archival biopsies from cases in a population-based NHL study were assayed for t(14;18) using polymerase chain reaction amplification. Exposures in 68 t(14;18)-positive and 114-negative cases were compared with 1245 controls. The expectation-maximization algorithm was used to fit polytomous regression models based on all available information, including data from 440 unclassified cases.

Results: Family history of hemolymphatic cancer was associated with t(14;18)-negative NHL (odds ratio (OR) 2.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4 3.9). but not t(14;18)-positive NHL. Cigarette smoking was weakly associated with t(14;18)-positive NHL (OR 1.7, CI 0.9-3.3), but ORs decreased as smoking increased. Chewing tobacco was associated with t(14;18)-positive NHL, particularly when used before age 18 (OR 2.5. CI 1.0-6.0, 13 exposed cases). Odds ratios for both case-subtypes were doubled among hair-dye users.

Conclusions: Cigarette smoking was not clearly associated with t(14;18)-positive NHL. Family history may be a marker for factors that act specifically through t(14;18)-negative pathogenic mechanisms.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Chromosomes, Human, Pair 14 / genetics*
  • Chromosomes, Human, Pair 18 / genetics*
  • Family Health
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / epidemiology
  • Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / etiology*
  • Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / genetics*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Occupational Exposure*
  • Odds Ratio
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking / adverse effects*
  • Translocation, Genetic*