The pathogenesis of spontaneous abortion is complex, presumably involving the interaction of several genetic and environmental factors. The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene C677T and A1298C polymorphisms are commonly associated with defects in folate dependent homocysteine metabolism and have been implicated as risk factors for recurrent embryo loss in early pregnancy. In the present study we have determined the prevalence of combined MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms in DNA samples from spontaneously aborted embryos (foetal death between sixth and twentieth week after conception) and adult controls using solid-phase minisequencing technique. There was a significant odds ratio of 14.2 (95% CI 1.78-113) in spontaneously aborted embryos comparing the prevalence of one or more 677T and 1298C alleles vs the wild type combined genotype (677CC/1298AA), indicating that the MTHFR polymorphisms may have a major impact on foetal survival. Combined 677CT/1298CC, 677TT/1298AC or 677TT/1298CC genotypes, which contain three or four mutant alleles, were not detected in any of the groups, suggesting complete linkage disequilibrium between the two polymorphisms. The present finding of high prevalence of mutated MTHFR genotypes in spontaneously aborted embryos emphasises the potential protective role of periconceptional folic acid supplementation.